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When Second World War ended in August 1945, all colonies of Japan, France, Holland, Portugal & Britain started getting freedom. Those empires were weakened in their colonies & started leaving slowly making best efforts to liberate the same with honorable agreements to make them friends of future. Those agreements took time for years. First country to get freedom from Japan was North Korea on 15th August 1945. India got freedom exactly two years later after lengthy negotiations of British Govt. with all political parties & splinter groups. Indian National Congress(INC) & Muslim League(ML) were two majour political parties. Differences cropped up on many issues & as a response to that ML declared 16 th August 1946 as a ‘Direct Action Day’ which was publicized as the day of mass return of medals, titles & awards conferred by British Govt. For that, a convention was held in Calcutta & maintenance of peace was appealed. At that time state govt. in united Bengal was of ML & chief Minister was Barrister Hussain Shaid Suhrawardy. He declared that day a holiday. The convention went off peacefully & when all participants were returning back homes, they were attacked by Hindu Mahasabha & other such local groups. That created a big communal riot & the CM, H. S. Suhrawardy appealed moving in an open jeep to diffuse the situation. That left deaths of thousands of human lives & ransacking properties. Gopal Patha Mukherjee of Willingdon Square who was in his 30s killed maximum about 800 people alone & he said in 1997 that he had no remorse of what he did, as reported by Andrew Whitehead of BBC. On 17 th August 1946(next day), the English daily newspaper ‘The Statesman’ published TWO EDITORIALS about that, the bigger one being on the front page in which the chief editor Ian Stephen wrote clearly that the way lethal weapons in so large numbers were used so fast in death, destructions, looting & arson, it became clear that preparation of that was done not less than six months in advance by Hindu Mahasabha,… men. That was retaliated a little later in Naokhali in East Bengal. That was retaliated heavily in Bihar by Brahmins & Banias by posting small children on stems of trees by pushing big nails across their bodies, ripping open Muslim pregnant women, removing fetuses, cutting open their heads for removing brains & throwing on roads saying to Muslims, “Take. This is your Pakistan.” Biharis are still of that mentality & intentions at large. Bihar was retaliated in Lahore which was retaliated in Garh mukteshwar of East Punjab & a chain reaction ensued. British Govt realized that perhaps, peace can not be achieved till India is divided in many parts but the formula was framed after provincial elections of 1946 to split India in two only. An interim federal(central) govt. was made having ministries of both INC & ML. Ministries distribution had differences as ML wanted to have Home Ministry which was held by Sardar Patel & not leaving that saying he can leave govt. if that was taken from him(so that he uses police & paramilitary forces selectively, brutally against Muslims as he did at large too in reality being a top order communal fascist on British record) & ML was offered weak lifeless ministries like Education & Finance, presuming that no ML member has any expertise. Bureaucrats Choudhari Mohammed Ali(Punjabi), Malik Ghulam Mohammed(Hyderabadi) & Shoaib Ahmed(of UP) secretly met top ML leaders for not rejecting finance ministry(FM) & promised for making tough budgets by their planning, making INC’s all plans paralyzed by restricting fund power. Liaqat Ali Khan(of UP) of ML was made FM. Ministers of INC & ML were meeting at tea parties for discussions in every evening. Sometimes, there were altercations too. Next budget of 1947 was to be made by ML. The 3 above bureaucrats framed such a policy that release of funds by FM for every plan & project of INC policy were being rejected in general by citing some articles of constitution trickily. Sardar Patel could not get funds for appointing even a new chaprasi. Budget was made by policies asked by INC which demanded to make a budget for the poor & unearth black money. So, all big industrialists were taxed heavily & landlords were relieved of that. INC was getting illegal funds from big capitalists secretly. Backbone of G. D. Birla was broken by heavy taxes. Sardar Patel openly said in parliament that the budget was anti-Hindu, crippling all capitalists which was responded by FM of ML that the budget was as per INC dictated policy of poor man’s. The budget speech, looking very general, carefully drafted was sent to M.O. Mathai(Christian, supposedly a NEUTRAL man), Nehru’s secretary for scrutiny for final modification(if any) to be suggested by INC. Mathai did not find anything objectionable in that & budget of the poor was passed. Liaqat Ali Khan made INC leaders, beggars like by being strict in fund releasing. INC leaders realized that getting rid of those people of ML in ministries was possible only by accepting partition by giving smallest possible piece of land & make them flee. Sardar Patel too supported partition more strongly than Nehru. Daily INC-ML ministers fight was seen & INC leaders wrote complaints to British Govt. in London that the viceroy favours mostly ML for resolving disputes after fights. So, INC wanted for change of that by someone friendly to INC. Till viceroy Lord Wavell was there, he endeavored for no partition at all but he was called back & Lord Louis Mountbatten, Nehru’s friend was sent who, from the very beginning tried in brain washing manner for persuading INC leaders for partition & at the same time secretly promised that he will make only a symbolic impracticable weak partition which will not sustain & will make natural reunited Akhand Bharat finally after a few months automatically for which he gave covert ideas to INC. So, according to that, INC blocked ¼ asset, the share of Pakistan & 300 filled trains of arms & ammunitions share allowing only 3 trains to go & in those too after opening crates, old shoes & clothes were found. That plan of practical annulment of partition of Mounbatten was under process but riots, looting, arson, ransacking properties, forcing people to vacate houses, illegal capture of maximum number of vacated houses by miscreants(happened in Delhi maximum by Punjabi refugees of Lahore, Sialkot, Rawalpindi & Layalpur assisted by army,…etc), murders(maximum done in Patiala, Kapurthala, Amritsar, Jind, Bharatpr, Alwar, Jammu & Kathua…killing entire one community selectively, IN MAJORITY), kidnapping girls, rapes & over & above heavy rainfalls everywhere, all sorts of opportunists’ crimes by all goons & fascists made things uncontrollable & compelled people to first maintain law & order before doing anything else for humanity sake at least leaving aside political matters for the time being. That phase & the circumstances actually consolidated partition practically instead of annulling as secretly suggested to INC leaders. It is because, EVERYTHING PLANNED IN ANY BATTLE OR WAR DOES NOT HAPPEN EXACTLY AS IT IS PLANNED. Dissents, corrections & suggestions with references are welcome as this is a research only, neither 100% accurate nor final.

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